BRONCHOSCOPY

It is a diagnostic procedure in which a flexible tube of ½ inch wide with a tiny camera on the end is inserted through the nose or mouth into the lungs. It provides a view of the airways of the lung and to collect lung secretions or tissue specimens (biopsy).

Procedure: A topical or local anesthetic is sprayed in mouth and throat which makes the area numb.

If the bronchoscopy is performed via the nose, an anesthetic jelly will be inserted into one nostril. The scope will be inserted through the numbed nostril until it passes through the throat into the trachea and bronchi. Saline solution is introduced to flush the area and collect cells to be analysed by a pathologist or microbiologist. This is called a “lavage”. Bronchoaveloar lavage (with large volume of saline) is performed to obtain a sample of the cells, fluids, and other materials present in the very small alveoli (air sacs).

Preparation for the test:
Fasting for 6 to 12 hours before the test is required. Avoid aspirin or ibuprofen medications before the procedure. An informed consent form has to be signed.

After the test, the cough reflex will return in 1 to 2 hours. Eating and drinking are not allowed until then. The throat may be scratchy for several days.

Indications:
If there is a lung disease that requires an inspection of the airways or a tissue sample for diagnosis or in case of coughing up blood (hemoptysis).

· Acute pulmonary eosinophilia
· Bronchial adenoma
· Metastatic cancer of the lung
· Pulmonary tuberculosis
· Sarcoidosis
· SVC obstruction
· Pneumonia and
· Other bacterial, viral and fungal infections.