Lung Cancer

Lung cancer (also known as carcinoma of the lung) is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), also called oat cell cancer, and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke,[2] which causes 80–90% of lung cancers.[1] Nonsmokers account for 10–15% of lung cancer cases,[3] and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors,[4] and exposure to; radon gas,[4] asbestos,[5] and air pollution[4] including second-hand smoke.[6][7] Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy[8] which is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guidance. Treatment and long-term outcomes depend on the type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the person’s overall health, measured by performance status.

Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy